a quick guide to autumn-blooming flowers, harvesting, seeding, clean up, and other Fall activities.
Putting a bit of effort into your garden in the fall allows it to thrive during next year’s growing season. There are also many new plants that thrive in fall weather, such as flowers, shrubs, and edible plants. Even if your garden consists of just a few containers on a New York City rooftop or fire escape, there are still many things to be done in the Fall!
New York State, given its size and diverse ecology, has a variety of USDA hardiness zones – you can use this map to see which zone your garden falls into. It is also very important to note the existing soil and plant composition, amount of sun, and drainage of the soil when choosing new plants for your garden. A properly curated garden can look beautiful year-round!
Food to Harvest in the Fall
Edible plants have Fall harvests in New York include cabbage, cauliflower, horseradish, Brussel sprouts, apples, leeks, and of course the fall staple, pumpkins. Most of these should be planted in the summer months.
Plants and Seeds you can add in the Fall
Autumn is not too late to add new perennials and seeds to your garden! In fact, many seeds are best poised for success when planted in the fall months. In terms of adding mature perennials, especially in the colder zones 5 and 4 of New York, your plants are more likely to establish roots and survive their first winter if planted in early Fall. Here is a guide to Fall fertilizing to ensure your plants’ success.
The Farmer’s Almanac provides an excellent calendar for sowing vegetable seeds, customized to 100 New York cities and towns.
If you have moist soil, the beautiful aster may thrive in your garden. The native Crown of Ray’s Goldenrod can thrive in full sun and dry soil anywhere in New York State except the chilly internal Adirondacks. The native Black Eyed Susan, often found in meadows and alongside New York State highways, is an excellent natural flower that blooms through the fall season.
More flower options can be found in the DEC Division of Land and Forests native flower guide. Perennials are favored over annuals in natural gardens, as they are more sustainable and require less effort.
Several ornamental grasses, such as Panicum, Calamagrostis and Little Bluestem put on a show during Fall months as they change from red, to green-silver, to yellow.
Adding a cover crop to your vegetable garden in the Fall is extremely beneficial for next year’s harvest: they add nutrients, prevent erosion, and discourage weeds to name a few. Cornell’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences has a great guide to cover crops.
The most popular naturalized bulb options for New York State are wild Tulips, Crocuses and Daffodils, as they return stronger in numbers the next growing season. Bulbs should be planted when the nighttime temperature hovers in the 40’s (F), and should be followed with fertilizer for best results.
Fall Clean Up
Fall is also a great time to clear old or unwanted plants and enhance the soil. Consider adding mulch or manure (or one of the cover crops mentioned above). Cleaning up old foliage is really important to stop the spread of diseases and prevent harmful insects from over-wintering your garden. Old fruits and foliage should always be removed completely from the garden, and no diseased organic matter should be added to home compost piles (most don’t get hot enough to completely kill bacteria and fungal spores). If you have a lawn, clippings and leaves can be used as mulch or tossed into a compost pile.
For more tips like these, check out this article from Yard and Garden Guru.